What are the Main Differences Between DNA and RNA


What are the main Differences Between DNA and RNA according to structural and functional differences. DNA is the abbreviation used for  DeoxyriboNucleic Acid. While RNA is the abbreviation used for RiboNucleic Acid. There is a big similarity between DNA and RNA i.e. both carries Genetic Information. DNA stores and then transfers Genetic Information to Ribosome while RNA works to link between this information from DNA and provides it to Ribosome in order to synthesis Proteins. There are number of differences between DNA and RNA given below:

DNA

DNA stands for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid. The structure of DNA is a double stranded molecule which consists of a long chain of Nucleotide s. It is made up of Deoxyribose sugar with Phosphate backbone (however, scientists have founded some DNA in which Arsenic substitutes for Phosphorus) consisting of bases Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine.  It carries the genetic information of the body. In human body, DNA is responsible for storing and transferring Genetic Information. It transmits genetic information in making other Cells and Organisms.

RNA

RNA stands for RiboNucleic Acid. It is a single stranded molecule (however double stranded RNA are also founded in some viruses) containing sugar ribose with Phosphate backbone containing bases Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine and Guanine. It is synthesized from DNA on as per need basis. It directly codes for Amino Acids and acts as a messenger between DNA and Ribosome in the synthesis of Proteins. RNA has a simple structure. It is needed in order for DNA to function. It is found in Prokaryotes (which precede eukaryotes).

What are the main Differences Between DNA and RNA

What are the Main Differences Between DNA and RNA

                          DNA                                    RNA
It stands for DeoxyriboNucleicAcid. It stands for RiboNucleic Acid.
It is a double stranded molecule It is a single stranded molecule.
UV rays damages DNA. RNA is resistant to UV damage.
It contains sugar deoxyribose.

Oxyribose has one -H group attached to the 2nd carbon atom.

It contains sugar Ribose.

Ribose has one more -OH group than Oxyribose.

It is stable under Alkaline Conditions. . RNA is not stable under Alkaline Conditions
In human body, DNA is responsible for storing Genetic Information and then transferring this information. It also transmits Genetic information in making other cells and organisms. On the other hand, RNA in human body acts as a link  between DNA and Ribosome in order to make protein.
DNA uses the bases (adenine-thymine),     (cytosine-guanine). RNA uses the bases (adenine-uracil),          (cytosine-guanine).
It is a self-replicating. RNA is synthesized from DNA on as per need basis.
The C-H bond in the DNA makes it more stable. The body destroys the enzymes which can attack the DNA. The small canals in the helix also works as protector for the DNA, providing small space for the enzymes to attach. The O-H bond in the RNA makes it more reactive as compared to DNA. RNA can’t be stable under the Alkaline Conditions. The large canals in the helix provides more room for the Enzymes to attack. RNA are constantly produced, used, degrade and Recycled.

 


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